requires a direct object." Example: "lend." "I lend money," and "He
lends a hand." "Money" and "a hand" are direct objects of the verb.
Most verbs have both transitive and intransitive forms, and "lend"
is no exception. "Do you borrow? No, I just lend." It's a stretch, I
know, which is why "lend" is mainly a transitive verb. But the object
is not an absolute necessity.
This is the key to understanding the difference between "to lay"
and "to lie." As I've written here before, "to lay" is transitive and
requires a direct object. "I lay the book on the table." Conversely,
"to lie" is intransitive and requires no direct object. "Sometimes I
sit; sometimes I stand; sometimes I lie."
But never do I, out of shame, lie about my knowledge of grammar
* JUNE CASAGRANDE, freelance writer, can be reached at